Python爬虫常用库beautifulsoup详解

简介

Beautiful Soup是一款支持多种解析器的灵活的网页解析库。

解析库:

解析器 使用方法 优势 劣势
Python标准库 BeautifulSoup(markup, “html.parser”) Python的内置标准库、执行速度适中 、文档容错能力强 Python 2.7.3 or 3.2.2)前的版本中文容错能力差
lxml HTML 解析器 BeautifulSoup(markup, “lxml”) 速度快、文档容错能力强 需要安装C语言库
lxml XML 解析器 BeautifulSoup(markup, “xml”) 速度快、唯一支持XML的解析器 需要安装C语言库
html5lib BeautifulSoup(markup, “html5lib”) 最好的容错性、以浏览器的方式解析文档、生成HTML5格式的文档 速度慢、不依赖外部扩展

基本使用

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html = """
<html><head><title>The Dormouse's story</title></head>
<body>
<p class="title" name="dromouse"><b>The Dormouse's story</b></p>
<p class="story">Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1"><!-- Elsie --></a>,
<a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> and
<a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>;
and they lived at the bottom of a well.</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.prettify())
print(soup.title.string)

lxml是比较常用的一种解析库。可以看到上面的代码是不完整的HTML代码,但是prettify()可以帮助格式化HTML代码,soup.title.string可以获取标签内容:

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<html>
<head>
<title>
The Dormouse's story
</title>
</head>
<body>
<p class="title" name="dromouse">
<b>
The Dormouse's story
</b>
</p>
<p class="story">
Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a class="sister" href="http://example.com/elsie" id="link1">
<!-- Elsie -->
</a>
,
<a class="sister" href="http://example.com/lacie" id="link2">
Lacie
</a>
and
<a class="sister" href="http://example.com/tillie" id="link3">
Tillie
</a>
;
and they lived at the bottom of a well.
</p>
<p class="story">
...
</p>
</body>
</html>
The Dormouse's story

标签选择器

选择元素

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html = """
<html><head><title>The Dormouse's story</title></head>
<body>
<p class="title" name="dromouse"><b>The Dormouse's story</b></p>
<p class="story">Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1"><!-- Elsie --></a>,
<a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> and
<a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>;
and they lived at the bottom of a well.</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.title)
print(type(soup.title))
print(soup.head)
print(soup.p)

输出如下:

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<title>The Dormouse's story</title>
<class 'bs4.element.Tag'>
<head><title>The Dormouse's story</title></head>
<p class="title" name="dromouse"><b>The Dormouse's story</b></p>

可以看到它们是bs4.element.Tag对象,而且这种方法只会输出第一个指定标签。

获取名称

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html = """
<html><head><title>The Dormouse's story</title></head>
<body>
<p class="title" name="dromouse"><b>The Dormouse's story</b></p>
<p class="story">Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1"><!-- Elsie --></a>,
<a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> and
<a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>;
and they lived at the bottom of a well.</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.title.name)

结果是把选中标签名输出:

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title

获取属性

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html = """
<html><head><title>The Dormouse's story</title></head>
<body>
<p class="title" name="dromouse"><b>The Dormouse's story</b></p>
<p class="story">Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1"><!-- Elsie --></a>,
<a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> and
<a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>;
and they lived at the bottom of a well.</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.p.attrs['name'])
print(soup.p['name'])

p.attrs['name']p['name']都可以获取属性:

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dromouse
dromouse

获取内容

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html = """
<html><head><title>The Dormouse's story</title></head>
<body>
<p clss="title" name="dromouse"><b>The Dormouse's story</b></p>
<p class="story">Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1"><!-- Elsie --></a>,
<a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> and
<a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>;
and they lived at the bottom of a well.</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.p.string)

结果:

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The Dormouse's story

嵌套选择

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html = """
<html><head><title>The Dormouse's story</title></head>
<body>
<p class="title" name="dromouse"><b>The Dormouse's story</b></p>
<p class="story">Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1"><!-- Elsie --></a>,
<a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> and
<a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>;
and they lived at the bottom of a well.</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.head.title.string)

经过选择的结果都是bs4.element.Tag对象,还可以用同样的方式选择,结果和前面是一样的:

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The Dormouse's story

子节点和子孙节点

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html = """
<html>
<head>
<title>The Dormouse's story</title>
</head>
<body>
<p class="story">
Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1">
<span>Elsie</span>
</a>
<a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a>
and
<a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>
and they lived at the bottom of a well.
</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.p.contents)

.contents以列表的形式返回子孙节点:

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['\n            Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were\n            ', <a class="sister" href="http://example.com/elsie" id="link1">
<span>Elsie</span>
</a>, '\n', <a class="sister" href="http://example.com/lacie" id="link2">Lacie</a>, ' \n and\n ', <a class="sister" href="http://example.com/tillie" id="link3">Tillie</a>, '\n and they lived at the bottom of a well.\n ']

另外,还有另外一种方式.children

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html = """
<html>
<head>
<title>The Dormouse's story</title>
</head>
<body>
<p class="story">
Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1">
<span>Elsie</span>
</a>
<a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a>
and
<a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>
and they lived at the bottom of a well.
</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.p.children)
for i, child in enumerate(soup.p.children):
print(i, child)

结果:

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<list_iterator object at 0x08CCBAF0>
0
Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were

1 <a class="sister" href="http://example.com/elsie" id="link1">
<span>Elsie</span>
</a>
2

3 <a class="sister" href="http://example.com/lacie" id="link2">Lacie</a>
4
and

5 <a class="sister" href="http://example.com/tillie" id="link3">Tillie</a>
6
and they lived at the bottom of a well.

可以看出,两者的不同之处就是.children返回的是list_iterator一个迭代器.contents返回列表
enumerate()方法遍历可以得到索引

.descendants获取所有子孙节点:

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html = """
<html>
<head>
<title>The Dormouse's story</title>
</head>
<body>
<p class="story">
Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1">
<span>Elsie</span>
</a>
<a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a>
and
<a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>
and they lived at the bottom of a well.
</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.p.descendants)
for i, child in enumerate(soup.p.descendants):
print(i, child)

结果返回generator

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<generator object descendants at 0x086AEB70>
0
Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were

1 <a class="sister" href="http://example.com/elsie" id="link1">
<span>Elsie</span>
</a>
2

3 <span>Elsie</span>
4 Elsie
5

6

7 <a class="sister" href="http://example.com/lacie" id="link2">Lacie</a>
8 Lacie
9
and

10 <a class="sister" href="http://example.com/tillie" id="link3">Tillie</a>
11 Tillie
12
and they lived at the bottom of a well.

父节点和祖先节点

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html = """
<html>
<head>
<title>The Dormouse's story</title>
</head>
<body>
<p class="story">
Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1">
<span>Elsie</span>
</a>
<a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a>
and
<a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>
and they lived at the bottom of a well.
</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.a.parent)

.parent获取父节点:

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<p class="story">
Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a class="sister" href="http://example.com/elsie" id="link1">
<span>Elsie</span>
</a>
<a class="sister" href="http://example.com/lacie" id="link2">Lacie</a>
and
<a class="sister" href="http://example.com/tillie" id="link3">Tillie</a>
and they lived at the bottom of a well.
</p>

.parents输出所有祖先节点:

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html = """
<html>
<head>
<title>The Dormouse's story</title>
</head>
<body>
<p class="story">
Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1">
<span>Elsie</span>
</a>
<a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a>
and
<a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>
and they lived at the bottom of a well.
</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(list(enumerate(soup.a.parents)))

结果:

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[(0, <p class="story">
Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a class="sister" href="http://example.com/elsie" id="link1">
<span>Elsie</span>
</a>
<a class="sister" href="http://example.com/lacie" id="link2">Lacie</a>
and
<a class="sister" href="http://example.com/tillie" id="link3">Tillie</a>
and they lived at the bottom of a well.
</p>), (1, <body>
<p class="story">
Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a class="sister" href="http://example.com/elsie" id="link1">
<span>Elsie</span>
</a>
<a class="sister" href="http://example.com/lacie" id="link2">Lacie</a>
and
<a class="sister" href="http://example.com/tillie" id="link3">Tillie</a>
and they lived at the bottom of a well.
</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
</body>), (2, <html>
<head>
<title>The Dormouse's story</title>
</head>
<body>
<p class="story">
Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a class="sister" href="http://example.com/elsie" id="link1">
<span>Elsie</span>
</a>
<a class="sister" href="http://example.com/lacie" id="link2">Lacie</a>
and
<a class="sister" href="http://example.com/tillie" id="link3">Tillie</a>
and they lived at the bottom of a well.
</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
</body></html>), (3, <html>
<head>
<title>The Dormouse's story</title>
</head>
<body>
<p class="story">
Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a class="sister" href="http://example.com/elsie" id="link1">
<span>Elsie</span>
</a>
<a class="sister" href="http://example.com/lacie" id="link2">Lacie</a>
and
<a class="sister" href="http://example.com/tillie" id="link3">Tillie</a>
and they lived at the bottom of a well.
</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
</body></html>)]

兄弟节点

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html = """
<html>
<head>
<title>The Dormouse's story</title>
</head>
<body>
<p class="story">
Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1">
<span>Elsie</span>
</a>
<a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a>
and
<a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>
and they lived at the bottom of a well.
</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(list(enumerate(soup.a.next_siblings)))
print(list(enumerate(soup.a.previous_siblings)))

.next_siblings获取后面的兄弟节点,.previous_siblings获取前面的兄弟节点:

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[(0, '\n'), (1, <a class="sister" href="http://example.com/lacie" id="link2">Lacie</a>), (2, ' \n            and\n            '), (3, <a class="sister" href="http://example.com/tillie" id="link3">Tillie</a>), (4, '\n            and they lived at the bottom of a well.\n        ')]
[(0, '\n Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were\n ')]

标准选择器

前面的标签选择器虽然速度很快,但是很多时候并不能满足我们的需求。

find_all()

可根据标签名、属性、内容查找文档,返回所有符合元素。用法:

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find_all(name, attrs, recursive, text, **kwargs)

根据name查找:

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html='''
<div class="panel">
<div class="panel-heading">
<h4>Hello</h4>
</div>
<div class="panel-body">
<ul class="list" id="list-1">
<li class="element">Foo</li>
<li class="element">Bar</li>
<li class="element">Jay</li>
</ul>
<ul class="list list-small" id="list-2">
<li class="element">Foo</li>
<li class="element">Bar</li>
</ul>
</div>
</div>
'''
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
for ul in soup.find_all('ul'):
print(ul.find_all('li'))

结果:

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[<li class="element">Foo</li>, <li class="element">Bar</li>, <li class="element">Jay</li>]
[<li class="element">Foo</li>, <li class="element">Bar</li>]

根据attrs查找:

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html='''
<div class="panel">
<div class="panel-heading">
<h4>Hello</h4>
</div>
<div class="panel-body">
<ul class="list" id="list-1" name="elements">
<li class="element">Foo</li>
<li class="element">Bar</li>
<li class="element">Jay</li>
</ul>
<ul class="list list-small" id="list-2">
<li class="element">Foo</li>
<li class="element">Bar</li>
</ul>
</div>
</div>
'''
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.find_all(attrs={'id': 'list-1'}))
print(soup.find_all(attrs={'name': 'elements'}))

结果:

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[<ul class="list" id="list-1" name="elements">
<li class="element">Foo</li>
<li class="element">Bar</li>
<li class="element">Jay</li>
</ul>]
[<ul class="list" id="list-1" name="elements">
<li class="element">Foo</li>
<li class="element">Bar</li>
<li class="element">Jay</li>
</ul>]

还可以简单的写成,需要注意的是,class是Python的关键字,要写成class_

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html='''
<div class="panel">
<div class="panel-heading">
<h4>Hello</h4>
</div>
<div class="panel-body">
<ul class="list" id="list-1">
<li class="element">Foo</li>
<li class="element">Bar</li>
<li class="element">Jay</li>
</ul>
<ul class="list list-small" id="list-2">
<li class="element">Foo</li>
<li class="element">Bar</li>
</ul>
</div>
</div>
'''
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.find_all(id='list-1'))
print(soup.find_all(class_='element'))

结果:

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[<ul class="list" id="list-1">
<li class="element">Foo</li>
<li class="element">Bar</li>
<li class="element">Jay</li>
</ul>]
[<li class="element">Foo</li>, <li class="element">Bar</li>, <li class="element">Jay</li>, <li class="element">Foo</li>, <li class="element">Bar</li>]

根据text选择:

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html='''
<div class="panel">
<div class="panel-heading">
<h4>Hello</h4>
</div>
<div class="panel-body">
<ul class="list" id="list-1">
<li class="element">Foo</li>
<li class="element">Bar</li>
<li class="element">Jay</li>
</ul>
<ul class="list list-small" id="list-2">
<li class="element">Foo</li>
<li class="element">Bar</li>
</ul>
</div>
</div>
'''
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.find_all(text='Foo'))

它是直接把text输出:

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['Foo', 'Foo']

find()

find_all()相似,不过find()返回单个元素,用法:

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find(name, attrs, recursive, text, **kwargs)

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html='''
<div class="panel">
<div class="panel-heading">
<h4>Hello</h4>
</div>
<div class="panel-body">
<ul class="list" id="list-1">
<li class="element">Foo</li>
<li class="element">Bar</li>
<li class="element">Jay</li>
</ul>
<ul class="list list-small" id="list-2">
<li class="element">Foo</li>
<li class="element">Bar</li>
</ul>
</div>
</div>
'''
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.find('ul'))
print(type(soup.find('ul')))
print(soup.find('page'))

不存在则返回None,结果:

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<ul class="list" id="list-1">
<li class="element">Foo</li>
<li class="element">Bar</li>
<li class="element">Jay</li>
</ul>
<class 'bs4.element.Tag'>
None

find_parents()、find_parent()

find_parents()返回所有祖先节点,find_parent()返回直接父节点。

find_next_siblings()、find_next_sibling()

find_next_siblings()返回后面所有兄弟节点,find_next_sibling()返回后面第一个兄弟节点。

find_previous_siblings()、find_previous_sibling()

find_previous_siblings()返回前面所有兄弟节点,find_previous_sibling()返回前面第一个兄弟节点。

find_all_next()、find_next()

find_all_next()返回节点后所有符合条件的节点, find_next()返回第一个符合条件的节点

find_all_previous()、find_previous()

find_all_previous()返回节点后所有符合条件的节点, find_previous()返回第一个符合条件的节点

css选择器

通过select()直接传入CSS选择器即可完成选择。

使用

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html='''
<div class="panel">
<div class="panel-heading">
<h4>Hello</h4>
</div>
<div class="panel-body">
<ul class="list" id="list-1">
<li class="element">Foo</li>
<li class="element">Bar</li>
<li class="element">Jay</li>
</ul>
<ul class="list list-small" id="list-2">
<li class="element">Foo</li>
<li class="element">Bar</li>
</ul>
</div>
</div>
'''
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.select('.panel .panel-heading'))
print(soup.select('ul li'))
print(soup.select('#list-2 .element'))
print(type(soup.select('ul')[0]))

结果也是bs4.element.Tag对象:

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[<div class="panel-heading">
<h4>Hello</h4>
</div>]
[<li class="element">Foo</li>, <li class="element">Bar</li>, <li class="element">Jay</li>, <li class="element">Foo</li>, <li class="element">Bar</li>]
[<li class="element">Foo</li>, <li class="element">Bar</li>]
<class 'bs4.element.Tag'>

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html='''
<div class="panel">
<div class="panel-heading">
<h4>Hello</h4>
</div>
<div class="panel-body">
<ul class="list" id="list-1">
<li class="element">Foo</li>
<li class="element">Bar</li>
<li class="element">Jay</li>
</ul>
<ul class="list list-small" id="list-2">
<li class="element">Foo</li>
<li class="element">Bar</li>
</ul>
</div>
</div>
'''
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
for ul in soup.select('ul'):
print(ul.select('li'))

结果:

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[<li class="element">Foo</li>, <li class="element">Bar</li>, <li class="element">Jay</li>]
[<li class="element">Foo</li>, <li class="element">Bar</li>]

获取属性

获取属性也有两种方法:

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html='''
<div class="panel">
<div class="panel-heading">
<h4>Hello</h4>
</div>
<div class="panel-body">
<ul class="list" id="list-1">
<li class="element">Foo</li>
<li class="element">Bar</li>
<li class="element">Jay</li>
</ul>
<ul class="list list-small" id="list-2">
<li class="element">Foo</li>
<li class="element">Bar</li>
</ul>
</div>
</div>
'''
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
for ul in soup.select('ul'):
print(ul['id'])
print(ul.attrs['id'])

结果:

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list-1
list-1
list-2
list-2

获取内容

get_text()就可以获取文本:

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html='''
<div class="panel">
<div class="panel-heading">
<h4>Hello</h4>
</div>
<div class="panel-body">
<ul class="list" id="list-1">
<li class="element">Foo</li>
<li class="element">Bar</li>
<li class="element">Jay</li>
</ul>
<ul class="list list-small" id="list-2">
<li class="element">Foo</li>
<li class="element">Bar</li>
</ul>
</div>
</div>
'''
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
for li in soup.select('li'):
print(li.get_text())

结果:

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Foo
Bar
Jay
Foo
Bar

结语

  • 推荐使用lxml解析库,必要时使用html.parser
  • 标签选择筛选功能弱但是速度快
  • 建议使用find()、find_all() 查询匹配单个结果或者多个结果
  • 如果对CSS选择器熟悉建议使用select()
  • 记住常用的获取属性和文本值的方法

详细的说明和使用可以点击这里查看文档。